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  • Policy Report
  • Segregated and Second Rate: “Special” Education in New York

    This 1992 report argues that the special education system in the New York City public schools is by nature segregated and second rate. It offers recommendations for achieving a more inclusive, effective education for all children.

    Nov 1, 1992

    Black teenage boy on a City street, facing away from the camera. (Photo by Gratisography via Pexels)
    Photo by Gratisography via Pexels

    The report presents data showing that NYC students with disabilities are educated in restrictive and racially segregated environments; identifies administrative barriers to inclusion in general education; and reviews the research literature on the benefits of inclusion. A variety of models of inclusive education are described, including the Adaptive Learning Environments Model, the Integrated Classroom Model, consultant teaching, team teaching, cooperative learning, peer tutoring, and parent involvement.

    Recommendations include broadening the definition of children capable of being educated in general classrooms, improving the quality of classroom teaching, increasing the availability and quality of related services and instructional materials, and expanding the continuum of special education services.

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